High polymorphism, analytical simplicity, easy to transfer, codominance and a great abundance of SSR markers within every genome make them advantageous over several other markers (Weber 1990). Improvement in chickpea germplasm against drought stress could be made by using several breeding approaches, that is introduction, hybridization, mutation breeding, marker‐assisted breeding and omic techniques. Escape, avoidance and tolerance have their own pros and cons but the preferred strategy is one with a positive correlation to yield. Harmful effects on the metabolic activity of nodules (Clement et al. Suboptimal availability of water induced several changes in nodules including alteration in N‐fixing tissues from red to green colour (Swaraj and Bishnoi 1996), degradation of Bacteroides (Herder et al. Chlorophyll a/b binding proteins and Rubisco subunit encoding genes were regulated in chickpea in response of PEG‐induced dehydration (Gao et al. 2009). Drought tolerance is worked out by phenotyping, genetic dissection and molecular breeding of chickpea traits. Yield reduction is dependent on geography and duration of the growth season. In some chickpea genotypes, internal CO2 concentration of leaf increased under drought stress which showed the predominance of non‐stomatal limiting factors (mesophyll resistance) for inhibition of photosynthetic activity (Mafakheri et al. In plants and animals, hybridization based markers (non‐PCR markers) were the first to be used in scientific research. 1995). Chlorophyll a/b ratio is not affected by drought which showed that both are equally sensitive to drought severity (Mafakheri et al. 2006). Jain and Chattopadhyay (2010) studied the transcript profiling differences between two chickpea genotypes under different drought treatments and concluded that highly expressing ESTs in tolerant genotypes were encoding proteins involved in transcription, signal transduction, protein metabolism and cellular organization. Free: 100% pod setting, early flowering and good early plant vigour. All morphological traits like plant height, primary branches, secondary branches, dry weight of stem, roots and leaves, root length, dry matter, leaf length, leaflet length and leaflet width are adversely affected by drought stress. The complex quantitative nature of drought tolerance and the difficulty in understanding of physiological mechanisms were responsible for a lack of breeding improvements. Chickpea exports are forecast to reach $590 million for 2020-21. Marker‐assisted backcrossing comprised of three selection levels (Holland 2004), foreground selection (DNA marker‐based screening of target trait), recombinant selection (DNA marker‐based selection of backcross progeny for target gene) and background selection (DNA marker‐based selection of backcross progeny for greatest proportion of recurrent parent genome). High‐throughput and precise monitoring and tracking of growth, development and responses to stress can be done through digital imaging which was not previously feasible. NIPGR (The National Institute for Plant Genome Research, India) developed 280 SSR markers with the help of microsatellite enrichment (Sethy et al. It yields best when grown on sandy, loam soils having an appropiate drainage system as this crop is very sensitive to the excess water aviailability and a lack of such system can hamper the yield levels. Problems of bias and the expertise of assessors can affect the results, thus demanding carefully designed and applied protocols. Desi chickpeas have a markedly higher fiber content than Kabulis and hence a very low glycemic index which may make them suitable for people with blood sugar problems. Reduction in mobility of carbohydrates to the nodules from leaves to support the Bacteroides (Singh and Singh. 2005). Drought avoidance maintains higher water potential in tissues under prevailing water deficiency in soil and atmosphere. 2010, Maqbool et al. DNA markers are categorized as PCR dependent and PCR independent or PCR based and hybridization based (Gupta et al. These adaptive strategies are drought escape, drought avoidance and drought tolerance and can be exploited by appropriate breeding methods. 2012). Osmotic adjustment (OA) is an important process that delayed the dehydration under drought stress and thus helps to maintain the turgor pressure and other life supporting physiological processes (Morgan 1984). The effects can be estimated from quantitative and qualitative parameters including seed emergence (Urbieta 2008), seedling establishment (Daws et al. Water uptake, water use and temporal aspects should be considered more important than the roots themselves (Vadez et al. BAC libraries were used by Lichtenzveig et al. Principal Scientist (Chickpea Breeding) ICRISAT, Patancheru Hyderabad 502 324, AP Email: [email protected]
Tel: +91-40-30713356; 09866080915 Fax: +91-40-30713074/30713075 S Srinivasan Scientist (Chickpea Breeding) IIPR -Kanpur Dr S K Chaturvedi Principal Scientist (Chickpea Breeding) and Head, Division of Crop Improvement, Genetic diversity is present in chickpea germplasm for responses to drought conditions and some genetic stock has characteristic features which prevent them from harmful effects of drought stress. 2011). Breeding approaches are diverse and versatile in nature including conventional, molecular and omic‐based techniques (Fig. However, internal leaf CO2 concentration (Ci) of several chickpea genotypes was same at seedling stage in both normal and drought stress conditions. Phenotypic scanning of large numbers of plants is possible with the help of these modern phenomic tools. In addition to these inherited features, some mechanical or technical features like non‐invasive, non‐destructive, precise and high‐throughput assays for measurement of traits increase the effectiveness of traits to be used for drought tolerance (Tuberosa 2012). ‘Desi’ type of chickpea is grown mainly in the Indo‐Pak subcontinent and Ethiopia (Pundir et al. Thus, interspecific hybridization should be exploited for development of different chickpea varieties with improved drought tolerance, yield and other agronomic traits. Abundance of free radicals in tissues could also be reflected by lipid peroxidation (Helal and Samir 2008). 2001). 2002). Breeding and Genetics Applications in Chickpea and Pigeonpea using the BeadXpress Platform Manish Roorkiwal, Shrikant L. Sawargaonkar, Annapurna Chitikineni, Mahendar Thudi, Rachit K. Saxena, Hari D. Upadhyaya, M. Isabel Vales, Oscar Riera-Lizarazu, and Rajeev K. Varshney* Abstract Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are ideal molecular markers due to their higher abundance. 0 0 1. All breeding enterprises should establish breeding objectives and goals and implement selection processes to meet those objectives as part of the overall business planning process. http://www.crnindia.com/commodity/chickpea.html, http://www.icrisat.org/ChickPea/Chickpea.htm. (2014). and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. Target‐induced local lesions in genome (TILLING) M2 population of chickpea was used for functional validation of drought‐responsive genes. Diverse or contrasting parents are mated to broaden the genetic base or to create genetic variation for the desired trait in next generation. 2003). 2012). 2012, Maqbool et al. Drought tolerance only ensures survival under drought stress, whereas productivity mostly has no association with tolerance (Keskin 2012). 1999, Moinuddin and Khanna‐Chopra 2004) which ensured the probability for improvement of this trait. Genomic selection in chickpea is also being started at ICRISAT. Effects on functionality of nodules during drought are due to the following reasons; Phenological phases categorize the growth stages into vegetative and reproductive growth stages. 2006): Different strategies are adopted by different fields of studies for combating drought stress. Drought stress affects the chlorophyll contents at both vegetative and reproductive growth stages (Mafakheri et al. Generally drought at any growth stage and organizational level is responsible for reduction in economic yield. Drought stress at physiological maturity reduces seed size. 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