30. Borders may even foster the setting up of buffer zones. Regulated Borders have varying degrees of control on the movement of persons and trade between nations and jurisdictions. Lily Taylor. AP Human Geography chapter 8; Shared Flashcard Set. From the perspective of these critics, China is taking advantage of the vulnerability and desperation in many underdeveloped African countries by offering them huge unsustainable loans for projects which are usually predetermined to be undertaken by Chinese firms, using Chinese workforce. Definitional Boundary Disputes ... land in Africa by notifying other nations of their claims and showing they could control the area. Level 2 Level 4. While the stone walls, the Great Wall of China and the Roman Hadrian's Wall in Britain had military functions, the entirety of the Roman borders were very porous, which encouraged Roman economic activity with neighbors. Some European borders originate from former land ownership boundaries. This TED talk from Jeff Speck gives a good sense of what planners believe in new urbanism are trying to do (you can also watch his earlier TED talk, 4 ways to make a city more walkable). The removal of internal barriers to commerce, as in France after the French Revolution or in Europe since the 1940s, de-emphasises border-based economic activity and fosters free trade. Geography. A sign showing the limits of the Frontier Closed Area, a 28-km² area along the Hong Kong-side of the 30-km-long border between Hong Kong and mainland China. Start studying AP Human Geography Language. Carl Sauer. The study of human political ... not agreed to the definition of the boundaries surrounding islands north of Japan. Natural borders are geographical features that present natural obstacles to communication and transport. Focuses on the legal language of the treaty for the boundary. The marker between the United States and Canada in Waterton-Glacier National Park. follows a stream or road How Long Does IT Take to Get a PhD in Business? a recognized member of the modern state system possessing formal sovereignty and occupied by a people who see themselves as a single, united nation, a term encompassing all the citizens of a state, the desire on behalf of a group that sees itself as a nation to achieve self-government through the establishment or promotion of a nation-state with genuine sovereignty, Loyalty to the governing state in which you live, describes a state that possesses a roughly circular, oval, or rectangular territory in which the distance from the geometric center to a point on the boundary exhibits little variance, protruded area, one that extends from a more compact core; this area sometimes has developed in different ways from the core (CHILE), a state whose territory consists of several separated parts, not a contagious whole. Guadiana International Bridge at the Portugal-Spain border, whose limits were established by the Treaty of Alcañices in 1297. Airspace extends 12 nautical miles from the coast of a country and it holds responsibility for protecting its own airspace unless under NATO peacetime protection. Details. A maritime border is a division enclosing an area in the ocean where a nation has exclusive rights over the mineral and biological resources, encompassing maritime features, limits and zones. AP Human Geography - Political Organization of Space (Unit 4) Flashcards.  Such a border is political in the sense that it is human demarcated, usually through a treaty. Border art can be defined as an art that is created in reference to any number of physical or imagined boundaries. • The Human Mosaic: A Thematic Introduction to Cultural Geography by W.H. AP Human Geography Vocabulary Apartheid: a legal system that was the physical separation of different races into different geographic areas My definition: separation of people in South Africa based on race Example: There were apartheid laws in South Africa between around 1950 to 1994. Moving goods across a border often requires the payment of excise tax, often collected by customs officials. ... land in Africa by notifying other nations of their claims and showing they could control the area. 25.  Open borders used to be very common amongst all nations, however this became less common after the First World War, which lead to the regulation of open borders, making them less common and no longer feasible for most industrialized nations.. Exclusive Economic Zone; a sea zone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources. AP Human Geography Course Description The course is designed according to the course outline found in the AP Human Geography Course Description published by the College Board. An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs. B) Using one specific example for both Africa and Southwest Asia (total of two), describe in detail how superimposed boundaries have contributed to political unrest and confrontation. Even the most fortified borders reserve specific places to allow crossing. Overall border regulations are placed by national and local governments and can vary depending on nation and current political or economic conditions. Borders are geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions, such as governments, sovereign states, federated states, and other subnational entities. Unit 7. Climate Lang Write. Many border artists defy easy classifications in their artistic practice and work. Some geographical features that often constitute natural borders are: Throughout history, technological advances have reduced the costs of transport and communication across the natural borders. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. This is significant, for example, in the Caspian Sea. (States the physical terrain of the world dictates how the humans survive). Example: Redlining Application: Very Important because Redlining affects urban areas.  Thus, there is the concept unofficial trade in goods otherwise legal; for example, the cross-border trade in livestock by pastoralists in the Horn of Africa. Borders can have an significant impact on and function for movement. Borders can include but are not limited to language, culture, social and economic class, religion, and national identity. AP Human Geography. Nicholas Spykman's theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provided the base for world conquest. A Human Geography Resource; Especially for Teachers The Human Imprint is home to everything Human Geography related for the student, educator, and the every day Joe/Jane. ... Sitemap. AP Human Geography Review.  Most nations have open borders for travel within their nation of travel, though more authoritarian states may limit the freedom of internal movement of its citizens, as for example in the former USSR. The Canada–United States border from Lake of the Woods Ontario/Minnesota to the Pacific Ocean follows the 49th parallel for roughly 2,175 miles (3,500 km). The permeability of borders depends on its construction, availability of crossings, regulation and types or scope of activity. Migration within territorial borders, and outside of them, represented an old and established pattern of movement in African countries, in seeking work and food, and to maintain ties with kin who had moved across the previously porous borders of their homelands. ... Gerrymandering is the process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power. Special cases in modern times were the Saudi Arabian–Iraqi neutral zone from 1922 to 1991 and the Saudi–Kuwaiti neutral zone from 1922 until 1970. Ethnographic (cultural) boundary: A boundary based on ethnographic and cultural considerations, such as language and religion. A boundary is a real or imaginary line that separates two things. You’ll use the tools and thinking processes of geographers to examine patterns of human population, migration, and land use. AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY. -A state is separated from it's neighbors by a boundary.-A boundary is an invisible line marking the extent of a states territory.-A compact state is a state that's distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly.-A prorupted state is an otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension.-An elongated state is a state with a long and narrow shape. He formulated his hypothesis as: Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland Who rules the Heartland commands the World-Island Who rules the World-Island commands the world Heartland (also known as the Pivot Area) is the core area of Eurasia, and the World-Island is all of Eurasia (both Europe and Asia). Border art is not confined to one particular medium. In a more planned and official context, Special Economic Zones (SEZs) often tend to cluster near borders or ports. A sign at the Polish-Czech border near Králický Sněžník, indicating that only citizens of the European Union and of five more states may cross. EX. The Council of Europe has issued the Outline Convention on Transfrontier Co-operation, providing a legal framework for cross-border co-operation even though it is in practice rarely used by Euroregions. , Template:Referenced section The Rio Grande forms a large part of the boundary between Mexico and the United States. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Possiblism, cultural landscape: creator. the study of the political organization of the planet. AP Human geography final project. Smuggling provides a classic case; contrariwise, a border region may flourish on the provision of excise or of import–export services — legal or quasi-legal, corrupt or legitimate. Agricultural Decision Making One of economic geography's primary goals is to explain or make sense of the land-use patterns we see on Earth's surface.  That means that although a political border may follow a river or mountain range, such a feature does not automatically define the political border, even though it may be a major physical barrier to crossing. AP Human Geography- Unit 4, Part 1 questionAnnexation answerLegally adding land area to a city in the United States questionAllocational/resource boundary dispute answerConflict over the Vocabulary. The three step process in which a boundary is created. Genetic Boundary : how boundaries evolve over time. The vertical boundaries of airspace are not officially set or regulated internationally. The Wagah border crossing between India and Pakistan along the Radcliffe Line. They may at once be artists and activists, existing in multiple social roles at once. "The Geographical Pivot of History." AP ® Human Geography Scoring Guidelines Set 2 2019 ... B3. AP Human Geography 2012 test. ... father of human geography. Geometric boundary: A boundary created by using lines of latitude and longitude and their associated arcs. A section of Hadrian's Wall marking the border of Roman Britain, Media related to Border at Wikimedia Commons, "County line" redirects here. ... Resources for Teaching the AP Human Geography Cities and Urban Land Use Topic. A) Define and give an example for the following types of boundaries: subsequent, antecedent, and relict. Stage 3 - moderate growth. 4 Diagnostic Tests 225 Practice Tests Question of the Day Flashcards Learn by Concept. It can enable and stop movement, across as well as along borders. Euroregions are similar official structures built around commuting across boundary.  Many cross-border regions are also active in encouraging intercultural communication and dialogue as well as cross-border economic development strategies. Other. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 38th parallel between North and South Korea, Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Outline Convention on Transfrontier Co-operation, Republic of Ireland-United Kingdom border, List of countries and territories by land and maritime borders, List of countries that border only one other country, List of countries and territories by land borders, List of bordering countries with greatest relative differences in GDP (PPP) per capita, List of land borders with dates of establishment, List of national border changes since World War I, "National Finitude and the Paranoid Style of the One", The Constitution in the 100-Mile Border Zone, Reexamining Fiat, Bona Fide and Force Dynamic Boundaries for Geopolitical Entities and their Placement in DOLCE, "Frontier, Fortification, and Forestation: Defensive Woodland on the Song–Liao Border in the Long Eleventh Century", "The Constitution of the Republic of Somaliland".  Airspace regulations are set by nations and local governments within an airspace, regulations of airspace differ by country and location. Formally known as a cease-fire line, an LoC was first created with the Simla Agreement between India and Pakistan. Blog About Contact Boundaries. Network of Alliances for Geographic Education. Not surprisingly, economic geographers use economic reasons to explain the location of economic activities. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the south. Self-illuminating Border flower pot between Burghausen, Salzach in Germany and Ach in Austria. Application: Very Important because Annexation affects urban areas. Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free. The permeability can vary, borders can be barriers for humans, but also for animal migration or types of pollution. There has been much conflict over the debate of who has control of the resources in the sea. Political Geography. It's important to know your boundaries. Geometric boundaries are formed by straight lines (such as lines of latitude or longitude), or occasionally arcs (Pennsylvania/Delaware), regardless of the physical and cultural features of the area. A restriction on behavior imposed by social custom. This TED talk from Jeff Speck gives a good sense of what planners believe in new urbanism are trying to do (you can also watch his earlier TED talk, 4 ways to make a city more walkable). This art can but is not limited to social, political, physical, emotional and/or nationalist issues.  With international agreement a country can assume the responsibility of protecting or controlling the atmosphere over International Airspaces such as the Pacific Ocean. European Motives for "Faces of Globalization and the Borders of States: From Asylum Seekers to Citizens", World of Walls: The Structure, Roles and Effectiveness of Separation Barriers, Collection of pictures of European borders, mainly intra-Schengen borders, Institut Européen des Itinéraires Culturels homepage, Border Ireland – database of activities and publications on cross-border co-operation on the island of Ireland since 1980's, Gallery of 1100 borderpoints in the world, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Border&oldid=992277771, Articles with dead external links from July 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2017, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from October 2019, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, All articles with links needing disambiguation, Articles with links needing disambiguation from August 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Imposed by third parties, e.g. Border conflicts or the potential of such are the reason why many borders feature fortifications and zoneing like no man's lands, demilitarized zones, demarcation lines and buffer zones. introduction to geography.  On the other hand, a border like the Maginot Line was entirely military and was meant to prevent any access in what was to be World War II to France by its neighbor, Germany; Germany ended up going around the Maginot Line through Belgium just as it had done in World War I. In geography, boundaries separate different regions of the Earth. [needs update]. However, a landscape border is not demarcated by fences and walls but instead landscape features such as forests, mountains, and water bodies. These artists are often "border crossers" themselves. These disputes arise for many reasons, but the desire for territorial expansion, irredentism, an historic lack of cartographic precision, or disagreements over formal, written documents are common causes. AP Human Geography Explore how humans have understood, used, and changed the surface of Earth. Definition: A ring of land maintained as parks, ... A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries. Flashcards. Primary tabs. Fiat boundaries are typically the product of human demarcation, such as in demarcating electoral districts or postal districts. Rivers are common boundaries between nations, states, and smaller political units such as counties. originally for Mrs. Watson's class 2010-2011.  Similar to a cease-fire line, an LoC is typically the result of war, military stalemates and unresolved land ownership conflict.. Definition:a type of economy in which human groups live off the land with little or no surplus Example: relies on natural resources other than purchasing them from other companies. A demilitarized zone (DMZ) is a border separating two or more nations, groups or militaries that have agreed to prohibit the use of military activity or force within the border's bounds. Title. Start studying AP Human Geography Unit 4. , A line of control (LoC) refers to a militarized buffer border between two or more nations that has yet to achieve permanent border status. Boundaries are divided into two large subgroups, physical boundaries and cultural boundaries. Gravity. Such a landscape usually differs from the borderland's natural geography and its building requires tremendous human labor and financial investment. The Plate Tectonics chapter of this Human Geography Help and Review course is the simplest way to master plate tectonics. In addition, a border may be a de facto military ceasefire line. A nationality that is not represented by a state. geometric boundary: Definition. The Mississippi River is the defining boundary between many of the states it winds through, including Iowa and Illinois, Arkansas and Tenne… a geographical feature on land such as a valley, defile or a bridge, or at sea such as a straight which an armed force is forced to pass, therefore greatly decreasing its combat, in order to reach its objective. A discriminatory real estate practice in North America in which members of minority groups are prevented from obtaining money to purchase homes or property in … Get Involved. D. Newman, "The lines that continue to separate us: Borders in our borderless world", Progress in Human Geography, Vol 30 (2), 1–19, 2006. This definition of geography works well for several reasons. This is explained by an array of factors, some of which illustrate regional problems.. ... the ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture. Perkmann, M, Building governance institutions across European borders, Regional Studies, 1999, Vol: 33, pages: 657–667, D. Newman & A. Paasi, `Fences and neighbours in the post-modern world: boundary narratives in political geography', Progress in Human Geography, Vol 22 (2), 186–207, 1998. A straight-line border surveyed when the region was thinly populated. AP Human Geography. Border art/artists often address the forced politicization of human bodies and physical land and the arbitrary, yet incredibly harmful, separations that are created by these borders and boundaries. I got a 100/100 on this set. Maritime Regime Building: Lessons Learned and Their Relevance for Northeast Asia, "The Vertical Limit of State Sovereignty", "Bulletin 20 - Space Weapons Ban: Thoughts on a New Treaty", "open border Definition in the Cambridge English Dictionary", "Schengen Area - Migration and Home Affairs - European Commission", "International Union for the Scientific Study of Population : XXIV General Population Conference, Salvador da Bahia, Brazil : Plenary Debate no 4", "Border Force: The world's toughest customs and immigration", "demilitarized zone (DMZ) | Definition, Facts, & Pictures", "Wildlife preserve planned for Korean demilitarized zone", "Military Zones Mean Boon For Biodiversity", Working across borders – Harnessing the potential of cross-border activities to improve livelihood security in the Horn of Africa drylands. It stresses the geographic way of organizing and analyzing information pertaining to the location, distribution, pattern, and interactions of the varied physical and human features of Earth's surface. When the Schengen rules became applicable in 2007, the sign became obsolete.  These nations have government controlled border agencies and organizations that enforce border regulation policies on and within their borders. Human economic traffic across borders (apart from kidnapping) may involve mass commuting between workplaces and residential settlements. These can extend inland, as in the United States where the U.S. Customs and Border Protection service has jurisdiction to operate up to 100 miles from any land or sea boundary. Agricultural revolution ... a state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly. The frontiers were particularly porous for the physical movement of migrants, and people living in borderlands easily maintained transnational cultural and social networks. Such political boundaries are often found around the states that developed out of colonial holdings, such as in North America, Africa and the Middle East. Existing political borders are often a formalization of such historical, natural obstacles. Level 1 Level 3. A landscape border is a mixture of political and natural borders. They may cross borders of traditional art-making (through performance, video, or a combination of mediums). Italy/Switzerland border stone at Passo San Giacomo. Zero population growth definition, the maintenance of a population at a constant level by limiting the number of live births to that needed to replace the existing population. Animals (and occasionally humans) moving across borders may need to go into quarantine to prevent the spread of exotic infectious diseases. Border between the Netherlands and Belgium next to a street café in Baarle Nassau and Baarle Hertog. a political boundary placed by powerful outsiders on a developed human landscape territorial morphology a states geographical shape, which can affect its spatial cohesion and political viability surveying east of the Appalachian Mountains. AP Human Geography Resources from NG Education to support teachers and learners of the Advanced Placement Human Geography course. A train crossing the China–Russia border, travelling from Zabaykalsk in Russia to Manzhouli in China. In humans it relates to the need for self-identity and freedom of choice, the calculated use of violence (or threat of violence) against civilians in order to attain goals that are political or religious or ideological in nature, Organization of three or more states to promote shared objectives. Some borders were broadly defined by treaty, and surveyors would then choose a suitable line on the ground. In places where smuggling, migration, and infiltration are a problem, many countries fortify borders with fences and barriers, and institute formal border control procedures. Region: Definition & Types ... Functional regions are those which are connected to a centralized focal point. Description. Most countries prohibit carrying illegal drugs or endangered animals across their borders. answer. In much of Europe, controls on persons were abolished by the 1985 Schengen Agreement and subsequent European Union legislation. Unit 5. There are many different types of boundaries. AP Human geography final project. They were meant to establish claims to land and were often smaller historically: Boundary process: The process of creating boundaries: Boundary type: natural boundaries:formed by geography,also political boundaries:formed through war and treaties countries form cultural boundaries used … In the past, many borders were not clearly defined lines; instead there were often intervening areas often claimed and fought over by both sides, sometimes called marshlands. A border can be a division, dividing groups of people and families. This theory was proposed by Sir Halford Mackinder in his 1904 essay, “The Geographical Pivot of History.” There is a lot to this theory and its importance, so let’s outline some key terms: Russification. Agreement signed on January 1, 1994, that allows the opening of borders between the United States, Mexico, and Canada, treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania. Land use and Resources. occurs over a resource on a boundary between two countries. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities. Since its conception in the mid-80's, this artistic practice has assisted in the development of questions surrounding homeland, borders, surveillance, identity, race, ethnicity, and national origin(s). Climate Lang  On the other hand, some borders are merely signposted. 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