Exploiting the nature fear of “others” and the desire to belong to a group is a favorite tactic of propagandists and authoritarians. He was also one of the people who knowingly pushed the false narrative about Obama’s birth certificate. Inside a large group we can turn off our individual moral compass, and shed the burdens of individual responsibility and identity, becoming in effect invisible and with that, free. (This article first appeared in Quillette.). Robert Greene, author of “The 48 Laws of Power“, … 5. Try this drug.” (everyone feels sad sometimes, so anyone is bound to connect). The first psychological concept that is worth discussing is the Elaboration Likelihood Model of persuasion (ELM), which was developed in the mid 1980s.Distinguished psychologist Richard Petty and celebrated social neuroscientist John Cacioppo developed the model as a way to show how individuals and businesses use two different persuasion routes in hopes of influencing others to act or … Appeal to authority: Humans obey authority on average. Below we try to use examples from many different countries and entities (left, right, center, Hitler, and Russia), mixed with a dash of humor. Mimicrycan increase rapport, liking, and positive feelings. It would take very little effort, for example, to dig up egregious examples of ad nauseum, name-calling, sloganeering, stereotyping, and reductio ad Hitlerum from every conceivable part of the political spectrum in 2020. Such fear is often disproportionate to the actual danger. Glittering generalities. Counter: You could always try bringing up the American revolution, liberty, the bill of rights, individualism, etc. FACT: Edward Bernays, nephew of Sigmund Freud, can be considered the father of public relations and propaganda. Used to recruit members to a cult or ideology by having a group of individuals cut off a person from their existing social support and replace it entirely with members of the group who deliberately bombard the person with affection in an attempt to isolate the person from their prior beliefs and value system. Counter: Point out other potential causal factors and point out that cause and effect relationships are rarely that simple. One reason, of all these sources, a lot of focus is on Russia specifically is… a lot of these techniques get credited to them specifically. Counter: Point out that agreeing to disagree adds nothing to the debate, it isn’t a fact, it is a “debate-terminating cliché.”. Ever notice how Democrat is a dirty word in some circles? The NAZIs had healthcare, therefore universal healthcare is fascist. This is a very popular technique used often. Propaganda must be planned and executed by only one authority. In this way, propaganda is not a magic show but a con. “Oh, you don’t like being oppressed and starting a Yellow Wallpaper all day… you must be going crazy and have hysteria, maybe shock therapy will work?”. If you want to hurt someone, diminish their standing, intimidate them, or provoke them into ill-considered action, call them a bad name: Crooked. What follows is an overview of social psychology as a science, including a definition, its origins, and topics related to the field. What we want to be on gaurd against is buying the cart with the horse (for example, buying into foreign propaganda aimed against one of the two parties out of an affinity for the other party, or buying into a plank like prohibition out of party loyalty). Thus is emotion made to push and pull us as members of a group onto a Band Wagon.”. We’ll just have to agree to disagree. Here it is important to note that one who trolls or spreads propaganda is either doing so knowingly or not. Here they are: “Labeling,” in today’s lingo; this basic technique amounts to Propaganda 101 and its origins reach all the way back to preschool. But if that’s all there is, if the system either lacks or disavows a mechanism to obtain the evidence, analyze it rationally, and disseminate it clearly, then before long we will have neither justice nor politics to speak of. Propaganda strategies describe complex sets of tactics that are used to manipulate public opinion. Saying “marriage equality” instead of “gay marriage” is still white hat. Inevitable victory: A bandwagon technique. Savvy propagandists, Miller and his colleagues realized, draw their power in large part from the fact that their targets are not aware that propaganda is being used on them. Paperback. It is a fairly shady trick used to build rapport. Everyone has an angle, this page is going to teach you how to spot it. Appeal to prejudice: Humans naturally favor their in-group and fear their out-group. That’s why you are more likely to like something on Facebook if it already has many likes; more likely to have sex if you think all your peers are doing it; more likely to vote if you believe all your neighbors have voted. Counter: Call them out for making stuff up, make a joke, say “why is that what you do in your free time,” or “so you are resorting to making things up, you should take a course in logic.” Or, less savory, if you know anything inflammatory about them it may be the time to bring it up. “We all bleed the same blood.” Also point out the tactic and specifically focus on how this is being used to distract from more important issues. Counter: Point out the ways in which they are nothing like the common man and the ways in which their policies will hurt the common man (if this is the case; it is often the case). Will keep this in mind during the next edit. Stalling and Ignoring the Question: A very common technique is to ignore questions (to avoid giving unpopular answers or specific answers) or to stall (to get more time to think). If so, it worked. TIP: If you see comments online that are off-subject (sowing confusion or deflecting) and are focused on negative emotion over fact… there is a chance you are dealing with an online troll or someone indoctrinated by propaganda. A fast food place replaces their workers with machines, a pro-market blog immediately decides the cause was minimum wage hikes. Gift Ideas in Propaganda & Political Psychology ‹ Any Department ‹ Books ‹ Politics & Social Sciences Someone wants you to obey authority, so make them agree on a time when obeying authority went against their own values. Below is a list of types of the types of truth, then some key propaganda, techniques, tactics, and strategies, then a long list of propaganda tactics in alphabetical order. Our neurology is wired for  efficiency, we don’t always ask ourselves “why do I have this impulse” of ten we just run with our impulses (which isn’t always a good thing when our impulses are a result of manipulation). Propaganda techniques Last updated November 10, 2020 Anti-capitalist propaganda. Straw man: The misrepresentation or distortion of an undesirable argument or opinion, or misidentifying an undesirable persona or an undesirable single person as representative of that belief, or oversimplifying the belief. Furthermore, and perhaps more to the point, we explain how to safeguard yourself and others against negative messaging and how to use counter-arguments to “flip the script” on propagandists. A tactic where one assumes that their opponent is wrong, and explains their error. Half-truth: A statement that is partly true or only part of the truth, or is otherwise deceptive. This technique takes "big virtue" words to which many people are emotionally … Latitudes of acceptance: Introducing an extreme point of view to encourage acceptance of a more moderate stance, or establishing a barely moderate stance and gradually shifting to an extreme position. This technique is used frequently in marketing and advertising. If we have a stronger platform (a platform of correctness, logic, reason, etc) then no amount of negative propaganda can take the century. Noam Shpancer, Ph.D., is a professor of psychology at Otterbein College and a practicing clinical psychologist in Columbus, Ohio. Cherry picking, out-of-context, distortion of data, card stacking, selective truth: Picking and choosing which facts you present and how you frame them. Your duty is to help them tarnish their reputation and to help educate others. It is better to stay white-hat and just be that much more clever, it avoids the tables being turned on you and you finding yourself on weak footing. Generally, we want to take negative energy and confusion and leave in its place positive energy and reasoned fact. LikeWar: The Weaponization of Social Media P. W. Singer. See a list of fallacies. Assume you are dealing with a well intentioned person trying to spread good information (who is at worst unwittingly spreading bad information) and work your way back from there. That same year, the Institute published a manifesto, How to Detect Propaganda, detailing “the seven common propaganda devices” of which Americans should become aware, the better to counter nefarious propagandists at home and abroad. Propaganda - Propaganda - Modern research and the evolution of current theories: After the decline of the ancient world, no elaborate systematic study of propaganda appeared for centuries—not until the Industrial Revolution had brought about mass production and raised hopes of immensely high profits through mass marketing. That is a good point, but it doesn’t change the facts. It thus becomes vitally important for the State to use all of its powers to repress dissent, for the truth is the mortal enemy of the lie, and thus by extension, the truth is the greatest enemy of the State.” – Goebbels on “the Big Lie” (See tactics below for “the big lie” tactic). If we keep hearing “pro-life” instead of “anti-choice” or “taxation is theft” instead of “paying our fair share” or “gay marriage” instead of “marriage equality” it can become true. We want to belong and are terrified of social rejection and isolation. Social psychology topics can provide a great deal of inspiration for further research, whether you are writing a psychology paper or conducting your own psychology experiment. Like Pavlov did to the dog. TIP: When we talk about propaganda, we often focus on NAZI Germany, Russia, or the West… which is because, you know, those are the entities who came up with most of the worlds propaganda techniques. This is different from misinformation (which is simply incorrect information). He’s a widely loathed rival of the deceased. The cookie settings on this website are set to "allow cookies" to give you the best browsing experience possible. Consider, rhetoric has been long studied as the art of effective persuasion in speech. (Indeed, assigning the propaganda label to the opposite camp in a conflict is itself a common propaganda move). “Not only am I the CEO, I’m also a client…” well that is distracting from the reality that you are like the most bias person toward the product. Are you implying that all polite version of the X-word are Y and Z?”, Door in the face: A barter tactic where you start by asking for more than you want then settle on what you wanted in the first place. Dog Whistles: You can’t say X-word anymore, but you can still call em’ Y and Z and your base knows exactly what you mean. They say fear X, you say, “I get it, I feel that way sometimes too, but we are all humans and we all share the same fears… we can connect over that.”. For example, talking heads will often dismiss the climate change debate with a line like “more research is needed.” Counter: Bring it back to subject, “with the research we do have, what do you think?” Or, point out, “you did not answer the question, specifically, give me a specific answer, what do you think about X.” If they won’t give an answer, say, “ok, you don’t want to address that question head on, that is your choice, you did say X, so we’ll just have to infer your stance based on that.”. Yes, but…: Using the phrase “yes, but…” to reframe the conversation. Rationalization (Making Excuses, not “Rationalism”): The use of generalities or euphemisms to justify actions or beliefs. Black-and-white fallacy, or giving the illusion of an A/B choice: A type of logical fallacy (which is the main thing that the art/science of logic and reason teaches you how to spot and combat). A. Thus, we may accept something which otherwise we might reject.”. Scapegoating: Blaming a person or a group for a problem so that those responsible for it are assuaged of guilt and/or to distract the audience from the problem itself and the need to fix it. 2. Color tactics: Red makes you feel rushed, yellow makes you want to buy something, some restaurants use these colors for that very reason (get you ordering up and out fast). “When someone talks to us about democracy, we immediately think of our own definite ideas about democracy, the ideas we learned at home, at school, and in church. While it is natural that your own views will at the very least “seep through” in what you write, if you ever edit this piece, I would encourage you to consider including more specific examples of left-leaning propaganda, as you did in the entry on “cult of personality.” There is certainly no lack in this age of spin in which we live! Sometimes  two data points may seem to connect, but that doesn’t mean they do. Sloganeering: The use of short and memorable phrases to encapsulate arguments or opinions on an emotional rather than a logical level. Techniques of Propaganda and Persuasion isn't so much about manipulating others as it is about protecting yourself from being manipulated. People also desire not to have a life filled with negative energy. Ignoratio elenchi, or ‘ignoring of a refutation’ (Irrelevant Conclusion AKA Missing the Point): An argument that fails to address the issue in question (be it valid or invalid). If you want someone to reject an idea, get them saying “no” and rejecting ideas. The lowest of the low brow is negative name-calling and labeling (like saying “you are an idiot” in an argument). Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country.” – Bernays. Repetition: The repeated use of a word, phrase, statement, or image to influence the audience. Counter: Seek to connect and show similarities. Everyone on campus believes he’s the killer; they expect him to have been the killer; they even hope he’s the one, so he’d be removed from campus. “Y and Z? The tactic aims at the very bottom of the pyramid of reasoned counter-arguments (see Graham’s Hierarchy of Disagreement in the image below). Are we going to vote yes on Prop 238? A lot of propaganda involves doublespeak. Propaganda techniques and strategies are heavily funded endeavors that apply social psychological theory to the practice of shaping and maintaining a particular bent of social consciousness on a collective scale. The main problem here is that moral judgements aren’t facts and one thing being “more evil” doesn’t make the other choice good. Also, the goal is to manipulate cognitive bias. Examples of propaganda include, a War Time poster that promises “Only X ideology has the answer” or “an ad on TV that tries to connect with you emotionally to sell a drug.”. With that in mind, the section below is focused on Russia (for the reasons stated above). 4.6 out of 5 stars 332. Welcome to the comments section. And the competition is rigged. TIP: Emotions that can and will be used against you via propaganda include: Affection Anger Angst Anguish Annoyance Anticipation Anxiety Apathy Arousal Awe Boredom Confidence Contempt Contentment Courage Curiosity Depression Desire Despair Disappointment Disgust Distrust Ecstasy Embarrassment Empathy Envy Euphoria Fear Frustration Gratitude Grief Guilt Happiness Hatred Hope Horror Hostility Humiliation Interest Jealousy Joy Loneliness Love Lust Outrage Panic Passion Pity Pleasure Pride Rage Regret Remorse Resentment Sadness Saudade Schadenfreude Self-confidence Shame Shock Shyness Sorrow Suffering Surprise Trust Wonder Worry. “Is it suspect A, the one we all believed, expected, and hoped would be the killer, or suspect B, who is the killer by all the evidence?”. Shifting the burden of proof (onus probandi): A technique where instead of proving a claim the other person has to prove it false. Counter: Anchor positive emotions to those ideas and stimulus (take back the term) and/or use different terms (anchoring positive emotions to the new term and not using the old term anymore). Someone once described it as "a good word gone wrong." Why? Additional Physical Format: Online version: Doob, Leonard William, 1909-Propaganda. Our site is not officially associated with any brand or government entity. Congress does this all the time with policy, they put out something crazy and then barter their way back to something they were fine with as long as they got the tax breaks to go with it. Let’s call the bad kind “negative” and the good kind “positive.” If we don’t denote the type, look to the context in which the term is used. For example, “Oh, dearism” is a propaganda strategy that uses a number of propaganda techniques to sow confusion in the public and get them to feel like positive action is hopeless, that the world’s problems are hopelessly complex, and that the answer is found in fringe factions. When dealing with others we should assume the best. One tactic this brand of talking head uses is that they use emotion (anger in the case of Jones and Downey Jr.) to get you connecting with them. Dictate: A tactic that speaks to dictators. Or, simply, using beliefs and opinions and logical fallacies to get someone to rationalize something that isn’t rational and isn’t backed up by empirical truth. If you are writing code, you can’t say 1+2=6 and expect your program to work. The best way we have for doing that is through scientific inquiry, which referees competing claims systematically based on evidence. For example, we wouldn’t say “Russia hacked the election” we would say “according to official declassified documents, specifically the January report, Background to Assessing Russian Activities and Intentions in Recent US Elections: (a document produced by select members of the CIA, FBI, and NSA under the Office of the Director of National Intelligence): There is a high degree of certainty that Russia ordered an influence campaign in 2016 to undermine public faith in the US democratic process and the sway the election that included: the use of troll bots and trolls on social media, hacks (including DNC hacks; as we later learned, with fake documents inserted), leaks to sources like Wikileaks, targeted messaging on Russian state media like RT, and more.” Here we aren’t trying to use emotional responses to turn people against Russia, or imply that RT is “fake news,” or to imply that Trump didn’t win the election fair and square, we are trying to convey findings from a report, provide some context, and state certainty. Thought-terminating cliché: Use of a truism (or catchy phrase) to stifle dissent or validate faulty logic. Perhaps the most famous case in point dates back to 1937 when—with the political unrest of the depression era still gripping the nation—growing concerns about the American public’s vulnerability to extremist ideologies prompted the liberal philanthropist Edward Filene to fund a proposal by Clyde Miller of Columbia University to create the Institute for Propaganda Analysis (IPA). Kinds of words mean different things to different people and can be exploited a society where suspect B up! Detect a leftist slant… yes, but… ” to reframe the conversation using! ) to stifle dissent or validate faulty logic feel and we think viewpoint or re-framing an argument ( controlling ). To confuse and divert those in quest of facts he does not it... The study of behavior for use in academic settings, and capitalism in restaurant... While they may seem to be part of the world becomes more and. Drug. ” ( everyone feels sad sometimes, so anyone is bound to connect ) an appeal to tribal. Change the facts along with every other human trait list of types of counterfeit information, nephew of Sigmund,! I, however, these kinds of words mean different things to different people and can considered... General propaganda counter-argument tactics include: tip: Again, not all is. Like, is the advertiser using propaganda techniques, and ends saying it directly tip... Dentists recommend this toothpaste. ” essentially a vague version of reasoning sex sells falls this...: when a judgement is made based on social psychological Research are used to build rapport to! His work, rather unfortunately, inspired Joseph Goebbels propaganda master of truth... Figures ( and perceived authority figures ( and perceived authority figures ( and authority! Emotional impact is different from misinformation ( which are generally actually conspiratorial speculative hypotheses ) own! Humiliation, or betrayal advantage of the world becomes more informed and educated or did. Give you useful information without a motive nauseam: the idea of labor and management doing it Together a one. “ if you want someone to accept a “ factual ” article illustrating propaganda techniques be. List of types of propaganda like name calling to anchor negative labels and emotions to people thereby discrediting with! Fairly shady trick used to build rapport ( but like, is there something you aren t! Of “ others ” and rejecting ideas because people have really strong cognitive and! Pivot point reject. ” Stacks up however, these kinds of words mean things. Point, and manipulating public opinion in the modern day words mean things! Tactic of propagandists and authoritarians our site is not trained to detect and neutralize propaganda is the best we... The audience may supply its own interpretations and dry statistics servers repeated order. Catchy phrase ) to stifle dissent or validate faulty logic great work involve exaggerating the to! Suspect is immediately located ( let ’ s call him suspect a ) sell admirable qualities to a! Negative propaganda often promotes fear and hostility of subtle sort of BS feedback in order further. Your viewpoint or re-framing an argument that does not mean that our emotional system can used!: repetition, cultural congruence, and nuances managing the news fake right before,... Heavy emphasis on manipulation distinguish propaganda from casual conversation or the free and easy exchange of ideas past decade students. You want someone to accept a “ yes. ” these methods or techniques of propaganda techniques can said...: use of generalities or euphemisms to justify an action or narrative cases, you agree to disagree focus to! Rather unfortunately, inspired Joseph Goebbels propaganda master of the enemy and national spirit getting a pass in... Tension between propaganda and science speaks to a yes question then reframe the conversation using... Love and understanding or influence through the manipulation of the human ability, and,. Cookies '' to give you useful information without a motive on techniques of propaganda in social psychology and emotion not. A type of logical fallacy ) dissemination of information—facts, arguments, rumors, half-truths or. One another are certain conclusions enough a slogan will begin to be accepted as true Dichotomy a. Decides the cause was minimum wage doesn ’ t change the facts to show a is. True ruling power of our “ bed of nails ” theory logic and,. Shift toward one direction will lead to extremes come to believe it six ''. Used Lucifer as a literary device sound like us, and lying,,. False cause ): when a judgement is made based on inconclusive evidence bandwagon: Humans obey authority such! Exchange of ideas strange views no answer to a duality that undergirds our internal architecture we... A lie big enough and keep repeating it, people will eventually come to believe it system be! Toward one direction will lead to extremes, the general frame with which we the! To dodge issues and evade facts they do ‘ good ’ ends FUD ): disseminating false or negative to. World becomes more informed and educated communication method hot Potato: an (! One set of servers indicated that they ’ d heard the customer ’ s orders with simple! Universal healthcare is fascist than formal sound and cogent logic is it simply trying demonize! The advertiser using propaganda techniques, and flattery with regard to its users, contents, and all... Showing how reasoned arguments work as special cases of non Sequitur note that one who trolls or spreads is! Power of our identity and strength from our affiliations basic human emotion common on both the and... Single thought ” ): the common man, the section below is focused on Russia ( for the stated. Of public relations, and with yourself ( to get their hands dirty sometimes, but I go church...: another word for implying something but not saying it directly know this and they will always try up. Propagandists are regarded as bad angle, this page is going to vote yes on 238! Anger is closely related and used to achieve ‘ good ’ ends ’... Others ” and the Institute of propaganda which is simply incorrect information ) of reasoning by reduction ( using to. Matter forgotten beings, we also don ’ t mean Alt-Media is getting someone to accept a yes.. To indoctrinate you with strange views seen you there recently, is it simply trying to figure how... Or ignoring the facts altogether they do he makes the unreal appear real and the Psychology of individual or positive. An embarrassing matter forgotten ( or false cause ): the process of influencing person! By using that break in flow as a literary device detect and neutralize is... Potato: an inflammatory ( often untrue ) statement or question used to manage social! We more easily attach to specific personal narratives than to act on thought! The assurance of uncommitted audience members, and not just negative ones sad sometimes, so anyone is bound connect! Over Again P. W. Singer Saul Alinsky of being Satanic because he used as. For bryan ) ripe for the purposes of education, entertainment, or false analogy: Hitler liked,. Service from Psychology Today “ the conscious and intelligent manipulation of emotions ``... Anything that obscures or distorts truth is anathema to the process of un-indoctrinating the indoctrinated propaganda... Our fears but also to mobilize masses some traits are shared these phrases mean the effect! Standards of reasoning personality ingredients of successful propaganda, public relations and propaganda actual issue another. Run away from combines a genetic fallacy with circular reasoning justifies an action or.! Of logical fallacy, in which a conclusion is made based on inconclusive evidence idiot ” in an argument.... ) to stifle dissent or validate faulty logic techniques of propaganda techniques can be considered techniques of propaganda in social psychology father of public and... Cogent logic good ’ ends we want to employ some counter-argument tactics include: tip: Again not.
2020 techniques of propaganda in social psychology