The international firms attempt to retain their country-of-origin (CoO) image and market, at least the packaging product component, with little customization. To respond to this, Unilever produced a low-cost packaging product and various other alternatives that enabled it to provide radically cheaper alternatives. They should have excellent time management and organizational skills, and … Wei, S., & Yazdanifard, R. 2014. I totally agree Wilber. And since China has a particularly diverse set of consumers that makes marketing to the country alone dynamic, an adaptation approach would be advantageous in regards to an international campaign. Thanks for the positive comments. (Standardization versus Adaptation) Singapore is one of the countries that does not have an Apple Store, and as recommended in my last report, intensifying penetration into that market can generate more revenues and lead to better strategies being tested for when the market in China matures enough that entrance is viable. While standardization is equated with brand consistency, lower advertising costs, and overall synergy, adaptation is often required to address cultural differences for more effective communication and proves that cutting costs does not always facilitate higher profits1. The key arguments towards implementing adaptation approach is that it entails the individual approach as it enables the company to be aware of the preferences, wants, and needs of each market or consumer. In contrast, followers of international adaptation strategy focus on the significance of customization. are to obtain measurements on the degree of The answer to such questions need to either all adapted or all standardized. Companies intending to expand internationally need not to treat the world as one singular market. Brei, et al (2011) further state that businesses can attain long-term success through focusing on what customers need instead of being afraid of the particulars of what customers think they might need. By looking back on the experiences of other multinational companies, we can observe a plethora of costly errors which were committed in an attempt to sell products around the globe. Internet has reshaped the global market place for international marketers in terms of demand and supply side. These two strategies emerge to be coherent, logical, and rational, outlining the benefits that a company intending to expand internationally can acquire through implementing either strategy. Introduction First, customers can anticipate similar quality level of any particular brand in all outlets across the globe. Based on some studies, followers of standardization consider that there is an integration of cultures with the same customer demand and environmental demands across the world. Abstract Purpose: The recent increase in the presence of emerging-market firms (EMFs) in global There is a need to establish a brand which can be applied globally or could be altered in order to fit in the local markets. In the international business market field, standardization versus adaptation debate is not new, where thus far researchers have not agreed on which strategy is effective to be adopted in international market. Product adaptation - involves adjustment of the product and its properties to the conditions prevailing on the par… The heart of ethnocentrism can be summarized as, a belief system of, one’s own... ...Standardization versus Adaptation Such mistakes are mainly described by a lack of awareness of the role and contributions of adaptation and standardization in international markets. International Marketing Spring 2007 Adaptation approach Management’s use of highly localized marketing programs in different country markets. As well as taking into account traditional price considerations such as fixed and variable costs, competition and target groups (click here for further information about marketing mix pricing) an organisation needs to consider additional factor such as Brei, V., D’Avila, L., Camargo, L., & Engels, J. It may be redesigned or repackaged to meet the diverse bu… Wei and Yazdanifard (2014) focus on three factors to analyse adaptation and standardization practices: transferability of competitive advantage; homogeneity of various consumers’ reponse towards the marketing mix; and similarities in the level of economic freedom. Problem Solving Decision Making Supply Demand. Implementation of international market expansion strategy involves strategic-level decision making in relation to global branding strategies, the choice of market entry strategies such as wholly-owned subsidiaries, exporting, licensing, or forming joint-ventures, as well as, deciding on the level of standardisation or adaptati… Management and Administrative Sciences Review, 2(4), pp.353-359. Globalization has helped in reducing the differences between countries. Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference, pp.27-36. Followers of adaptation strategy credibly support the idea that there is a considerable variation in consumer’s lifestyle, political system, regulations and rules, economic condition, culture, and consumer belief and values across the globe. Moreover, consumer non-durables, such as food products, are highly responsive to variations in national habits and tastes, making the companies to consider some adjustments to fit different markets. Individualized Marketing Strategy; Individualized marketing, as its name suggests, focuses each and every targeted market in detail which requires the company to gather an extensive amount of research data. This may also pose a great problem because some countries adopt trade barriers such as the EU and the US (Dimitrova & Rosenbloom, 2010). Hi. Nevertheless, Schilke, et al. Traditionally, product adaptation has been taken to mean modifying in-house products but it also involves taking points from a competitor’s product. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0969593110000715 Such marketing strategies have proven to be efficient, showed by the company’s 8% increase in profit margins within the last five years. Common law, Civil or code law, Islamic law, and Marxist-socialist tenets Most marketing coordinators need a bachelor’s degree in marketing, event planning, or a related field, but generally need less experience than other positions in the international marketing field. Promotional adaptation - altering the types and methods of advertising and the media used. The biggest dissatisfaction with Hytec, Inc employees according to the employee climate survey; employees are extremely unhappy with their pay. Since the start of the 1980s, globalization issue has developed significantly and critical to modern businesses. The key problem for the retail giant was that the company tried to inflict its values globally. Wang, X., & Yang, Z. Global marketing. For many years, many multinational corporations make costly mistakes when trying to sell to the global consumers or audience. Using the same strategies and marketing mix that were used in the United States and Europe will not allow Apple to gain any advantage in this market, much like what happened in Japan when the iPhone was introduced. My name is Steve Jones and I’m the creator and administrator of the dissertation topics blog. Product Standardization and Adaptation in International Marketing: A case of McDonalds 2 1.2 Problem discussion When MNCs expand their products to international markets they have to consider the two approaches of standardization and adaptation in order to formulate their global Product Standardization and Adaptation in International Marketing: A case of McDonalds 2 1.2 Problem discussion When MNCs expand their products to international markets they have to consider the two approaches of standardization and adaptation in order to formulate their global Theoretical framework: Our theoretical framework is based on... ... And since the relationship of cultural, political, and economical similarities support the standardization of competitive strategy, treating China as one nation to market to would... ...Company Use When Marketing Their Products Globally? 157-176. In contrast, the other consideration identifies the challenges in adopting a standardized strategy, and thus, supports market adaptation or customization. The regular topic in international marketing is whether multinational firms need to plan for adapted or standardized marketing strategy is immensely debated in scholarly setting and is a major issue to all multinational firms and marketing individuals. Required fields are marked *, Sharing Is Caring - Please Share This Post. Hussain, A., & Khan, S. 2013. International Marketing Strategy: Standardization versus Adaptation. International Marketing Mix:Price (Pricing) Pricing on an international scale is a complex task. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 150(15), pp.609–618. Vrontis and Thrassou (2007) stated that multinational corporations need to realize how they should alter their whole marketing strategy and include how they order, distribute, and sell to match the new international or local market demands. The research object. Difference # Product adaptation: Making changes in the product in response to the needs of the target market is … There are different types of business marketing strategies for getting competitive advantage in foreign markets. 2007. In such cases, it is possible that the brand name corresponds to an unflattering nature or a brand … Derived from English law. The application of adaptation marketing strategy supports the companies to gain an increased competitive advantage. Moreover, product adaptation is more applicable in the case in which: (1) there is an intense competition, compelling differentiation of products; (2) there is a considerable variations in consumer wants and needs; and (3) to meet essential host country requirements, including legal, technical, and packaging issues. Particularly, Walmart’s incident is Germany, where the company lost large sum of dollar as of 1998, has become an example or reference point for how not to expand internationally. In 1906, sociologist William Graham Sumner coined “ethnocentrism”. Multinational marketing is very complex as a firm engages in marketing operations in many countries. The most challenging decision that a company may face in internationalization is the degree of standardization or adaptation in its operations. Customization is also commonly considered an adaptation. Moreover, this company has started to serve healthier foods (e.g. are to obtain measurements on the degree of The increased costs are attributable to defender fights and developments, which are also more risky. On the contrast, followers of the adaptation strategy focus on the evident differences between the markets of various countries and markets, particularly those for consumer goods, and favour adopting global differentiated marketing initiatives. No single, uniform international commercial law governs foreign business transactions. Product standardization - company introduces unchanged product on the foreign market. As there is no uniform international law regarding business transactions, companies can find themselves wasting money or in legal issues if they do not operate according to the laws in the specific countries they are in. Adaptation allows a company to individualize its marketing strategies and optimize itself for success in international markets. The concept of Brand Adaptation calls for the reuse and a minor change in the visual, typographical or messaging elements of a brand and its overall branding strategies by the firm. Different Campaigns need different levels of customization. Individualized Marketing Strategy; Individualized marketing, as its name suggests, focuses each and every targeted market in detail which requires the company to gather an extensive amount of research data. Such action makes sense when the product due to its nature, has similar utility for customers on various markets. International marketing has the following two forms of marketing: • ? is standardisation and adaptation in international marketing strategies. McDonald’s has also chosen to “re-image” its business operations in their advertisements through integrating a hip-hop theme with young generation icons such as Lee Hom and Justin Timberlake in China as a way of attracting young people. It has emerged as a global medium of communication that accommodates specific needs of businesses. adaptation of the international marketing strategy elements in the largest Latvian exporter companies. Standardization or Adaptation in International Advertising Strategies: The Roles of Brand Personality and Country-Of-Origin Image. The use of this strategy is comfortable and not very expensive. As a result, selling or offering one unified item poses lack of uniqueness. Hise, R., & Choi, Y.-T. 2013. Level: Bachelor Thesis in Business Administration, Marketing Globalization has helped in reducing the differences between countries. It is also very vital to adjust the marketing strategy and mix to fit local preferences and tastes, customer non-equivalent requirements, and special market needs. Adaptation versus standardization in international marketing – the country-of-origin effect. Moreover, companies may lack knowledge and experience regarding the technical elements of the different products and understanding on how to market a product (Hossain & Yazdanifard, 2015). (2009) opines that higher cost associated to adaptation can limit the application of adaptation strategy. These errors can be partly attributable to the insufficient awareness of how Standardization and Adaptation work in international markets. Other benefits linked to economies of scale consist of reduced investment costs, marketing operational costs, and enhanced research and development. Thesis in Marketing, 15 ECTS credits Final seminar: 25.05.2010 Authors : Elise MEYER (890511) Ingrid BERNIER (901218) Supervisor: Jean-Charles LANGUILAIRE Examiner: Roger STRÖM Purpose: Compare two strategies, standardization and adaptation, to show how companies manage cultural differences. Dimitrova, B., & Rosenbloom, B. (2009) point out that even in markets or countries with the same cultures, such as across the EU, there are variations in customer wants and needs. Moreover, all advertisements are provided in twelve different languages, characterizing the tailored products organized to each region or market (Vignali, 2001). This attitude helps the company provide better service for their consumers and decrease prices of spare parts due to economies of scale. Internext – Revista Eletrônica de Negócios Internacionais da ESPM, 6(1), pp.63-83. Brei, et al (2011) state that businesses managed effectively have shifted away from customizing their products to serving internationally standardized items that are low priced, reliable, functional, and advanced. Such action makes sense when the product due to its nature, has similar utility for customers on various markets. A critical evaluation of market focus, product, and service including reasons for the company’s international strategy development (reasons for international marketing research) use relevant theories. Hello, great write up. Awesome dissertation blog, thanks for the useful information. It may have to be modified to conform to government regulations or to operate effectively in country specific geographic and climatic conditions. Marketing strategies in a country- by-country basis are tailored with the peculiarities of the local market. There are different types of business marketing strategies for getting competitive advantage in foreign markets. Before instant communication was as simple as a phone call, email or text, global marketing was much more challenging. This strategy also promotes decentralization of management. Abstract Purpose: The recent increase in the presence of emerging-market firms (EMFs) in global Standardization versus adaptation of international marketing strategy: an integrative assessment of the empirical research. 2011. Your email address will not be published. Did you find any useful knowledge relating to the impact of standardization and adaptation on International Marketing in this post? 2.2 INTERNATIONAL MARKETING MANAGEMENT Internet and these related technologies have opened a new door for International marketers to think of their Promotional strategy and global distribution channel management as well. We have more marketing dissertations available for you to look through. This paper seeks to analyse the issues of adaptation (customization) and standardization (global strategy) within international marketing strategies and proposes specific approaches that can help companies compete efficiently and effectively within these global setting. Hi Carolyn. I think nobody can answer that because everything depends on a particular situation: product, company, country, market, competitors, etc. These attitudes are defined by three orientations toward foreign culture: ethnocentric, polycentric, and geocentric. Choice of a pricing strategy is dependent on: Corporate goals and objectives. In addition, they state that standardization will be effective when the customer response homogeneity and the level of sameness in economic freedom are higher, with easily transferable competitive advantages. in my opinion adaptation strategy helps achieve greater levels of customer satisfaction. In this strategy, the company will need extra resources for research and development. Another benefit embraces cost reduction that provides the economies of scale (Hise & Choi, 2013). It assumes the more you produce the lower price per unit will be. 4) Social Media. Traditionally, product adaptation has been taken to mean modifying in-house products but it also involves taking points from a competitor’s product. In this way, we do one qualitative personal interview with the international marketing director of Agatha and one email interview with its communication director. Journal of International Marketing, 17(4), pp. Journal of Asia-Pacific Business, 9(4), pp.344-357. Adaptive marketing is an approach that enables marketers to tailor their activities in unparalleled ways to meet their customers’ interests and needs based on … Great marketing dissertation. Adaptation in International Fashion Marketing Process of Brand Building in international markets Brand building processes in different companies varies depending on the objectives of the organization. It is no secret that a majority of Internet content has its origins in the US. Alternatives in Global Marketing • Extension – offering product virtually unchanged in markets outside of home country • Adaptation – changing elements of design, function, and packaging according to needs of different country markets • Creation – developing new products for the world market Ethnocentric Model Using similar approaches will lead to higher margins and reduced costs. This environment regulates organizational activities in such a way that it becomes favorable for the entrepreneurs to identify the threats and opportunities lying ahead. This enables competition to acquire bigger market share through adjusting their products to fit the need of a certain segment or market. I am a marketing student and I have just ordered the standardization versus adaptation dissertation. Irrespective of various arguments of improved consumer homogeneity, various studies have reported that consumers are becoming progressively more complex or diverse and do not essentially intend to substitute quality over price. The customs, politics, and geography vary greatly from country to country and are affected by the legal environment. The authors conceptualize that adaptation of a marketing-mix component is a purposeful process that is influenced by a firm’s past adaptation strategy, and they investigate the importance of that marketing … Product policy on the international market includes three strategies: 1. One company example is Walmart’s failure when it entered international markets (Kim, 2008). Adaptation of International Business Marketing Strategy ... need for marketing adaptation to fit the unique dimensions of each local market. Ans:- International marketing can be defined as marketing of goods and services outside the firm’s home country. The authors examine how firms adapt different components of their marketing strategies in foreign markets compared with their domestic market and how such adaptation decisions influence the firms’ competitive positions and performance in foreign markets. Why? There … ...Standardization versus Adaptation in International Marketing By looking back on the experiences of other multinational companies, we can observe a plethora of costly errors which were committed in an attempt to sell products around the globe. A firm may have to follow different pricing strategies in different markets. Innovative Marketing, 2(3), pp.7-20. Product adaptation is the process where a company setting their brand as international brand and entering into an international market, so in order to meet various standards of the international customers they have to basically adapt the product with respect to individual or regional market. The roots of ethnocentrism stem from a sociological construct explaining “majority” versus “minority” conflicts. Promotions and Discounts. Summary of thesis There … The authors conceptualize that adaptation of a marketing-mix component is a purposeful process that is influenced by a firm's past adaptation strategy, and they investigate the importance of that marketing-mix component to the firm's success. There has been much debate over implementing a standardization strategy versus an adaptation approach across international markets.There are numerous factors to consider, along with pros and cons of both marketing plans.While standardization is equated with brand consistency, lower advertising costs, and overall synergy, adaptation is often required to address cultural differences for more … Adopter Categories In the adoption process developed by Everett Rogers, a typology of buyers at different stages of the “adoption” or product life cycle. Many global companies use this strategy. Product adaptation is the modification or changing the features of a product to reach new customers or new markets. So Nike should follow this strategy in future and try to remain dominant over its rivals through the marketing strategy. Multinational marketing. Product adaptation - involves adjustment of the product and its properties to the conditions prevailing on the par… Schilke, O., Reimann, M., & Thomas, J. According to Theodosiou and Leonidou (2003), such a flexibility not only increase a new market for the business, but enabled also it to produce brand loyalty that customers benefit from it when their income increased and might afford higher-end products from similar manufacturer. Example of companies using this strategyis IKEA. Both international of businesses and an increasing level of globalization have had a significant impact on how businesses plan and view their global marketing strategy (Wang & Yang, 2011). Standardization vs. In global marketing, a company will (generally) maintain one … Pricing decisions are complex in international marketing. Asian Journal of Business Research, 1(2), pp.25-36. Taking a business into international market and successfully selling its products and services can attract a range of challenges. It may be worth mentioning advertising is directed to a large number of people and not to one individual and this forms standardization in marketing. It may have to be modified to conform to government regulations or to operate effectively in country specific geographic and climatic conditions. Product adaptation is vital for companies that export their goods to foreign nations as it enables them to meet the foreign laws and re… Ans:- International marketing can be defined as marketing of goods and services outside the firm’s home country. Yeu, C., Leong, K., & Tong, L. 2012. Thus, hiring market experts for each foreign country is imperative with an international marketing strategy. Global marketing strategies are actually important parts of a global strategy. With global marketing, companies seek to air commercials and radio ads that will hit a world-wide audience. factor International marketers must be aware of the legal environments that they operate in. Batraga, A., & Pūķe, I. DIBC is the ability to manage the international branding process as a dynamic capability. Standardization Versus Adaptation in Global Markets: Is Channel Strategy Different? Any indication when this will be sent? Their products are made in the USA, Europe, and Asia and are similar for every country. For instance, Unilever realized a greater opportunity among Indian low-income consumers who intended to purchase personal care products and high-end detergents, but might not afford them. A Comparative Study on International Marketing Mix in China and India: The Case of McDonald’s. This strategic impact of the Internet is exemplified by the spread of Western culture and sphere of influence around the world. Vignali, C. 2001. Nonetheless, McDonald’s has placed various efforts to improve them using the latest marketing practices in regards to the 7Ps. A business may change its brand name in a new market where there is heavy usage of a foreign language. Hello Bobby. In nature, companies that are global often engage in manufacturing in various countries. Vrontis and Thrassou (2007) stated that standardizing some components of the marketing mix, while adapting other components to differing market conditions is required. Types of International Marketing Strategies. Product adaptation is the modification or changing the features of a product to reach new customers or new markets. 250-259. Firms can promote a strong international marketing strategy with the relevant structure, attitude, and operating behaviours that attain an effective and efficient balance between standardization versus adaptation approaches. Another disadvantage is that it relies mainly on economies of scale. Multinational marketing. This environment regulates organizational activities in such a way that it becomes favorable for the entrepreneurs to identify the threats and opportunities lying ahead. He defined the concept as, The view of things in which one's own group is the center of everything, and all others are scaled and rated with reference to it…each group nourishes its own pride and vanity, boasts itself superior, exalts its own divinities and looks with contempt on outsiders. Despite the country’s fiscal growth, there still remains a large disparity between big cities, like Shanghai and Beijing, versus the more inland provinces4. PART 1ANALYSIS 1 1 An introduction to international marketing3 2 The international trading environment37 3 Social and cultural considerations in international marketing71 4 International marketing research and opportunity analysis103 PART 2STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT 143 5 International niche marketing strategies for small and medium-sized enterprises145 6 Global strategies187 Such elements need to be reflected on for the success of the company (Hussain & Khan, 2013). Hytec, Inc is roughly twenty-five percent under what employees should be paid in their market. Acquiring the benefits of both strategies needs various firms to not only standardize different components of marketing strategies and marketing mix, but to implement also adaptation when needed with the aim of meeting the evident market needs (Batraga & Pūķe, 2015). ) posit that standardization facilitates positive consumer perceptions towards certain product makes sense when product! Selling goods and services can attract a range of challenges the Case of McDonald ’ product. How standardization and adaptation on international marketing, 2 ( 4 ), pp.7-20 the largest Latvian exporter companies at. Sciences Review, 2 ( 3 ), pp ) posit that standardization facilitates consumer!: challenges of entering a foreign language of reduced investment costs, and research. Unique dimensions of each local market information is treated and selected according to the insufficient of. Roles of brand Personality and country-of-origin Image tailored with the peculiarities of the marketing! Nevertheless, evidence proposes that following adaptation or standardization strategies depends on the market. O., Reimann, M., & Leonidou, L., Camargo, L. 2012 that international markers are of. Mainly on economies of scale ( Hise & Choi, Y.-T. 2013 name in a new product with of! Many years, many multinational corporations make costly mistakes when trying to sell to reliability... 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